Close this search box.
poochamp logo

Top 10 most common toxins for dogs and how to avoid.

happy dog victor
top 10 toxins for dogs

Table of Contents

As a concerned pet parent, knowing about the most dangerous toxins for dogs can be a lifesaver. Here, we delve into the top 10 pet toxins, their effects, and ways to prevent your dog from accidental ingestion.

Top 10 most common toxins for dogs.

1-The Dark Side of Chocolate.

“What is the most toxic substance to a dog?” You might ask. Well, it may come as a surprise, but the sweet treat we humans adore can be a silent killer for our canine companions.

Chocolate contains theobromine, which dogs metabolize much slower than humans. This slow breakdown can lead to theobromine poisoning, causing symptoms.


  • restlessness.

  • rapid breathing.

  • muscle tremors.

  • seizures.

Prevention: Keep chocolates in a high, unreachable place and educate children about their dangers to dogs. What to do: If you suspect your dog has ingested chocolate, consult your vet immediately.

2- Grape and Raisin Risk.

Why are grapes and raisins very toxic to dogs?

  • The exact substance that makes them toxic is still unknown.

  • Even small amounts can cause kidney failure in dogs.

The toxic dose depends on the size of the dog.

  • As few as 4-5 grapes or raisins can cause poisoning in smaller dogs.

  • 9-10 grapes/raisins can cause issues for a 10-pound dog.

  • Around 30 grapes for a 35-pound dog.

So, even a handful can make a dog sick.


  • Vomiting within first 24 hours – may see grape/raisin pieces.

  • Increased urination.

  • Lack of appetite.

  • Lethargy/fatigue.

  • Abdominal pain.

  • Dehydration.

  • Diarrhea in later stages.

  • Potentially: Complete kidney failure and lack of urine production.

What To Do if your dog ate grape or raisin.

  • Induce vomiting if recently ingested – ONLY if advised by your vet.

  • IV fluids to prevent kidney damage and increase hydration.

  • Other treatments tailored to symptoms.

  • Dialysis or kidney function monitoring if kidney failure occurs.

Prevention is very important. Make sure grapes, raisins, grape juice or products with them are kept away from your dog. Seek prompt vet care if ingestion is suspected. Quick action improves outcomes dramatically.

3- The Xylitol Threat.

Xylitol is an artificial sugar substitute that is extremely toxic to dogs.

Why is Xylitol Toxic for dogs?

  • It causes a rapid and profound drop in blood sugar levels. This triggers the release of hormones that can overwhelm the dog’s system.

  • It can also cause severe liver damage, putting dogs at risk for liver failure within just a few days. The mechanism behind the liver toxicity is still being researched.

Products With Xylitol.

  • Chewing gum and mints.

  • Peanut butter.

  • Sugar-free candy/chocolate.

  • Nicotine gum.

  • Some peanut and nut butter.

  • Some toothpaste and mouthwashes.

  • Baked goods and protein bars/shakes.

  • Over-the-counter vitamins and medicines.

Safer Alternatives for Xylitol.

  • Chewing gum – Use regular sugary varieties.

  • Peanut butter – Brands without Xylitol added.

  • Candy/chocolate – Regular varieties in moderation.

  • Nicotine gum – Speak with your vet first.

  • Nut butters – Brands without added sweeteners.

  • Toothpaste – Veterinary toothpaste for dogs.

  • Baked goods – Canine-safe recipes without sweetener.

  • Vitamins/medicines – Always keep out of reach or consult a vet.

The key is carefully checking labels for Xylitol before giving human food products to dogs. When unsure, call the company. Better to be safe than risk toxicity. If in doubt, avoid sharing altogether or speak with your vet first about safer options.


  • Vomiting, weakness, staggering or uncoordinated walking.

  • Lethargy or tremoring/seizures from the drastic drop in blood sugar.

  • Loss of appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting blood.

  • Jaundice (yellow gums, skin, eyes).

  • Dark urine, blood coagulation issues.


  • Immediate vet monitoring is essential, usually involving hospitalization.

  • Close regulation of blood sugar levels through intravenous dextrose doses.

  • Treatment for liver dysfunction – IV fluids, liver protectants, nutrition therapy.

  • Blood transfusions, if needed.

  • Other therapies tailored to symptoms shown.

Prevention is key. Keep all sources of xylitol well out of a dog’s reach, including gum, mints, nicotine gums, peanut butter, and even toothpaste. Xylitol toxicity develops extremely fast in dogs. With aggressive treatment, the prognosis can be good if caught early. However, liver failure can happen within 72 hours without proper veterinary treatment.

top 10 most common toxins for dogs

4- Onions and Garlic: A Hidden Danger.

Why Are Onions and Garlic Toxic for dogs?

  • They contain compounds called disulphides and sulfoxides, which can damage red blood cells and cause hemolytic anemia if eaten in significant quantities. Garlic is less toxic than onions for most dogs.

  • The damage happens when the dog’s body breaks down these compounds. The sulfoxides in onions are more concentrated and more toxic.

  • The red blood cells rupture, become deformed, and cannot carry oxygen efficiently. This leads to anemia and associated symptoms.


  • Vomiting, diarrhea initially if a large amount is eaten.

  • Loss of appetite.

  • Weakness, lethargy, rapid breathing from anemia.

  • Dark or tar-colored stool.

  • Yellowish skin, gums, or eyes (jaundice).

  • Urine that’s orange-tinged to brownish red.

  • Rapid heart rate, trouble breathing in severe cases.

What to do if your dog ate Onions and Garlic.

  • Don’t induce vomiting unless advised by your vet. The compounds need to pass through the system.

  • Call your vet even if mild symptoms initially. Symptoms can rapidly worsen in 12-24 hours.

  • Your vet may advise giving absorbents like activated charcoal to prevent further absorption.

  • IV fluids, blood transfusions, and intensive treatment may be needed for advanced onion/garlic poisoning.

  • Even if your dog seems to recover, blood tests should be done after a few days to stabilize the red blood cell count.

So monitor your dog closely and contact your vet immediately if you suspect onion/garlic poisoning. Prompt treatment can prevent severe, dangerous anemia and other complications. Prevent access to onion-heavy foods to keep your dog safe.

5- The Macadamia Nut Menace.

macadamia nuts are toxic for dogs

Why are the Macadamia nuts toxic for dogs?

  • They contain an unknown toxin that damages muscle and nerve tissue. The specific toxin has not yet been identified, but the effects it causes are well documented.

  • Even small amounts can cause dogs to develop muscle tremors, weakness, swollen limbs, pain, and stiffness within 12 hours of ingestion. These symptoms often last for several days.

  • Larger amounts can lead to an increase in body temperature, rapid heart rate, lameness in the back legs, and inability to stand up. In the worst cases, it can cause temporary paralysis.

  • The toxin accumulates in the body over time as more nuts are consumed. So, even if initial symptoms are mild, they can suddenly worsen if the dog manages to eat more nuts.

  • Vomiting, urinary incontinence, and inability to walk can set in a few days after ingestion in severe cases. Complete recovery may take over a week once the toxins have worked through.

Prevention: Store these nuts and any food containing them out of your dog’s reach. What to do: If you suspect your dog has eaten macadamia nuts, contact your vet immediately.

6- Alcoholic Items.

Alcohol toxicity poses a huge danger for dogs. Their bodies process alcohol far less efficiently compared to humans. Even small ingestions of beer, wine, liquor, food containing alcohol or alcohol-based products like mouthwash or sanitizer can make dogs dangerously ill.

The ethanol in these substances gets rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Early signs of alcohol poisoning in dogs include weakness, lack of coordination, disorientation and stupor. As more alcohol circulates to the brain, it causes progressively more severe depression in the central nervous system.

Dogs may experience dangerous drops in body temperature, blood glucose and blood pressure. Intoxication gives way to seizures, coma, respiratory failure and potential death from alcohol poisoning without swift veterinary intervention.

Dogs show symptoms and become gravely ill after drinking significantly less alcohol than humans relative to their smaller body size. Depending on the breed and weight, a few ounces of plain beer or wine can be toxic. Hard liquor or products with higher alcohol concentration, like liqueurs, are especially dangerous.

Prevention is key – alcohol must be completely inaccessible. Any suspected ingestion of alcohol merits urgent veterinary care to stabilize blood sugar, temperature and fluid levels, potentially administering IV antidotes. While rapid treatment greatly improves prognosis, owners should never underestimate how lethal alcohol can be for pets based on their sensitivity. Keeping all alcohol away from dogs is critical.

7- Medication Mishaps.

Human medications can be very dangerous for dogs, even in small doses. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are two common examples that dog owners must be very careful about.

Human medications are number one in the top 10 most common toxins for dogs recording 17% of the cases.

Ibuprofen poisoning affects dogs much more severely than humans because of differences in metabolism. Ingestion of even small amounts of ibuprofen or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause stomach ulcers or severe kidney damage in dogs.

Symptoms like vomiting, lethargy, and loss of appetite happen quickly. Without prompt veterinary treatment, kidney failure can develop within 48 hours.

Acetaminophen is another human pain or fever reducer lethal to dogs because their liver lacks an enzyme to break it down safely. Toxic byproducts lead to extensive liver necrosis.

Early signs like appetite loss or vomiting give way to tremors, abdominal pain, jaundice, and bleeding disorders as liver function declines. Acetaminophen, even in regular-strength formats, can be deadly in exceedingly small doses – a mere 50 mg per kilogram.

Preventing exposure to all human medications is paramount. Keeping pills or supplements securely closed inside cabinets dogs cannot access can save lives. Dosage for pets should only be given under direct veterinary advisement. If you suspect your dog ingested any people’s medication, call poison control or your vet immediately, even without symptoms.

8- The Antifreeze Alert.

Even small amounts of antifreeze can be lethal to dogs due to their extreme sensitivity to ethylene glycol, the key compound in these coolant products. As little as a teaspoon can be fatal if untreated.

Once ingested, ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and metabolized by the liver into highly toxic compounds that are up to 12 times more toxic. These metabolites cause irreversible kidney damage and crystal formation in the bladder, ureters and kidneys.

Kidney dysfunction leads to the accumulation of various toxins and electrolyte imbalances that can trigger cardiac arrhythmias, seizures and eventually coma or death, usually within 12-24 hours. Secondary symptoms like vomiting, excessive drinking or urination, difficulty breathing, unsteadiness or hypothermia quickly progress to full renal failure.

With prompt and aggressive veterinary therapy, recovery is possible if treated before a complete kidney shutdown occurs. This involves inducing vomiting if ingestion was recent, intravenous fluid diuresis to flush the kidneys, antidotes like ethanol or fomepizole to slow the metabolism of ethylene glycol and other supportive measures.

However, once anuric renal failure sets in, the prognosis is poor and will require lifelong kidney dialysis. Even if the dog survives initial poisoning, there may be long-term kidney issues.

Prevention is critical when it comes to antifreeze toxicity. Care should be taken to clean up any garage leaks quickly. Containers should be sealed and stored high up or even locked away, given it takes such a small quantity to kill a pet potentially. Any suspected ingestion warrants immediate emergency veterinary treatment.

9- Rodenticides.

Rodenticides are pest control chemicals designed to kill rodents like rats and mice. They work by interfering with the normal clotting mechanism of blood, leading to uncontrolled bleeding and death.

Rodenticides are number 7 on APCC’s list of top 10 most common toxins for dogs.

Some common ingredients in rodenticides that are highly toxic include:

  • Anticoagulant compounds like brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difethialone, and diphacinone. These prevent blood clotting and cause fatal internal bleeding. Even small ingestions can be lethal to dogs.

  • Strychnine – Causes painful muscle contractions and convulsions through excessive spinal cord stimulation. Dogs may die within hours from respiratory paralysis.

  • Zinc phosphide – Generates phosphine gas in stomach acid which causes pulmonary edema, liver necrosis, heart damage and shock. Low survival rate.

  • Aluminum phosphide and phosphides – Same toxic phosphine gas mechanism as zinc phosphide.

  • Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) – Causes rapid absorption of calcium, leading to circulatory failure and kidney dysfunction.

The key risk is that dogs may accidentally ingest rodenticide through bait consumed directly or by eating an affected rodent who has already consumed the bait.

This “second-generation” exposure remains highly toxic. Preventive measures include strict containment of baits and disposal of dead rodents found on the property before dogs can access them.

Immediate veterinary treatment is critical in case of any known or suspected poisoning from rodenticides. The prognosis varies widely based on specific toxins, dosage and how soon treatment begins.

10-Household Cleaners and Chemicals.

Many household cleaning products can be toxic to dogs.

Types of toxic cleaning products for dogs.

  • Bleach and bleach-containing products: Bleach can cause gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, and excessive salivation. Concentrated amounts can lead to respiratory distress.

  • Ammonia-based cleaners: Inhalation of fumes or ingestion can irritate mucous membranes and cause breathing difficulties and fluid accumulation in the lungs. Prolonged exposure can lead to liver and kidney damage.

  • Detergents and soaps: Most laundry and dish detergents contain surfactants that can cause profuse vomiting and lethargy. Sodium hydroxide in some soaps can burn the skin, mouth, and eyes.

  • Disinfectants: Products containing phenols and quaternary ammonium compounds can cause ulcers in the mouth and irritation to the eyes and skin. At high enough levels, respiratory failure may occur.

  • Toilet bowl cleaners: The corrosive ingredients, like bleach or hydrochloric acid, can burn the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.

  • Drain cleaners: Strong bases or acids in products that clear clogs can cause severe mouth, esophagus, and stomach burns.

  • Oven cleaners: Caustic alkali chemicals can cause corrosion and inflammation of the mouth and digestive tract tissue.

  • Mothballs and repellants: Contain chemicals like paradichlorobenzene, which can cause liver damage with significant exposure.

    Keeping all household chemicals and cleaners safely out of a dog’s reach is extremely important. Having the number of your vet and ASPCA poison control on hand is also recommended.

Safe, natural alternatives to commercial cleaners.

  • All-Purpose Cleaner: Mix 1⁄2 cup vinegar, 1⁄4 cup baking soda, ten drops of essential oils like lemon or lavender and 4 cups of water. Use on most surfaces.

  • Stainless Steel Cleaner: Mix 2 tbsp white vinegar, 2 cups warm water, and 5-10 drops of essential oil in a spray bottle. Spray and wipe clean with a microfiber cloth.

  • Glass Cleaner: Add 1⁄4-1⁄2 cup vinegar with 2 cups water in a spray bottle. Add a couple of drops of lemon essential oil if you want a lemony, fresh scent.

  • Wood Cleaner: Mix 1⁄2 cup vinegar, 1⁄4 cup olive oil and 2⁄3 cup lemon juice. Rub into the wood with a soft cloth to condition.

  • Toilet Bowl Cleaner: Pour 1⁄4 cup baking soda into the bowl, then drizzle 1 cup vinegar along the sides of the bowl. Let sit 30 minutes before scrubbing and flushing.

  • Tile Cleaner: Mix 1⁄2 cup baking soda with enough hydrogen peroxide to form a paste. Apply and let sit for 15-20 minutes before scrubbing and rinsing.

  • Carpet Stain Remover: Immediately blot the spot with water and vinegar first. Rub some baking soda for light stains, let it sit briefly, then vacuum it up.

Always spot-test natural cleaners first and ensure adequate ventilation when cleaning. With some simple ingredients, you can safely and effectively clean your home around your pets!

Here is a comprehensive guide to creating a safe home environment for your dog:

Proof Your Home:

  • Keep all medications, supplements, cleaning products, automotive supplies, chemicals, pesticides, and other potentially toxic substances locked away in secure cabinets your dog can’t access. Consider child-proof locks.

  • Secure trash cans with locking lids and keep them inside cabinets. Dogs can get very sick rooting through trash.

  • Stow all sewing supplies, strings, dental floss, and tinsel away in drawers, as these can cause intestinal blockages if swallowed.

  • Make all electrical cords inaccessible by running them behind furniture or securing them with plastic cord covers. Don’t let cords dangle to prevent chewing and electrocution risk.

  • Place breakable decor out of wagging tail reach.

  • Keep pet food stored in dog-proof containers, rotating stock to prevent staleness.

    Dog-Proof Your Yard:

  • Walk your property to identify and remove any poisonous plants. Lilies, sago palms, azaleas, rhododendrons, and tulips are especially toxic.

  • Cover or fill any holes or gaps in fencing through which dogs could escape.

  • Ensure fencing is solidly anchored and tall enough (5-6 feet) that dogs cannot jump over. Bury bottom 1-2 feet underground.

  • Consider adding fencing around poisonous vegetation you opt to keep on the property.

  • Place outdoor toxins like antifreeze, gasoline, fertilizer, and ice melt away in locked sheds/garages.

    Stay Vigilant:

    Pay attention to new behaviours like fatigue, vomiting, and seizures, which may indicate poisoning. Keep the ASPCA poison control hotline on your phone, and don’t hesitate to call your vet. Prevention combined with vigilance will help enormously in protecting your pup!

In conclusion, prevention is key in protecting your furry friend from these top 10 pet toxins. However, accidents can happen, so knowing the signs and what to do can save your pet’s life.

Picture of MiM


I decided to create this blog because I wanted to share the joys of being a dog owner with others, as well as provide valuable insights on how best to take care of our beloved four-legged friends.


Popular Post

Social Media